Yerevan, Armenia – celebrating 2800 years as a city 2

Yerevan was chosen as a favourable site for a royal capital in 782 BCE by King Argishti I of Urartu.

In 2018 the city celebrated its 2800th year in existence, making Yerevan one of the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world.

Founding of Yerevan

Mount Ararat, Armenia

Mount Ararat towering over the city of Yerevan, Armenia. Photo credit: Amrita Ronnachit

There’s evidence of human occupation in the region dating back to the 4th Millennium BCE (in the form of building foundations and cultural deposits at the Shengavit archaeological site).

Things really got going, however, with the emergence of the immense fortress of Erebuni.

Erebuni Fortress

Erebuni Fortress, Armenia

Erebuni Fortress, on the outskirts of the city of Yerevan. Photo credit: Benjamin White

Built in 782 BCE (we know the precise date of construction from cuneiform inscriptions found within the fortress), Erebuni Fortress sits atop a hilltop just outside of the modern capital.

Erebuni Fortress, Armenia

Cuneiform inscriptions inside Erebuni Fortress. Photo credit: Amrita Ronnachit

The fortress was the largest of a string of fortifications built along the northern border of the Urartian kingdom.

Today, sadly, the site is little more than ruins, and you’ll need a fair application of imagination to envision the place during its heyday.

Erebuni Fortress, Armenia

Artefacts within Erebuni Museum. Photo credit: Amrita Ronnachit

Fortunately there is a decent museum at Erebuni that contains many fascinating artefacts (such as the Persian rhyton – drinking horn – above), and its informative displays go some way to making sense of the site.

The intervening years

Yerevan, Armenia

Downtown Yerevan. Photo credit: Benjamin White

The Kingdom of Armenia was formed in 331 BCE. The people of Armenia, however, would rarely find themselves in control of their own destinies throughout the following two millennia (the region was controlled by various Persian Empires, various Turkish empires, various Central Asian nomadic groups, the Mongols, and most recently by the Russians and the Soviet Union).

Armenia gained lasting independence in 1991.

Things to do in Yerevan:

Katoghike Tsiranavor Church of Avan

Katoghike Tsiranavor Church of Avan, Yerevan, Armenia

‘Katoghike Tsiranavor Church of Avan’ by Liveon001 © Travis K. Witt, 2009. Available online at

The Katoghike Tsiranavor Church of Avan is the oldest church in Yerevan.

It was built during the 6th Century CE whilst the region was under control of the Sasanian (Persian) Empire.

Republic Square

Republic Square, Yerevan, Armenia

Photo credit: Benjamin White

The idea for Yerevan’s grand central square dates back to the 1920s, although another 50 years would pass before the plan was fully realised.

Republic Square is ringed by five key buildings, each of eye-catching neoclassical design. The buildings include Government House, the History Museum of Armenia, the National Gallery, the Armenia Marriott Hotel, and a government ministry.

History Museum of Armenia

Republic Square, Yerevan, Armenia

Photo credit: Benjamin White

The History Museum includes archaeological items from some of the earliest human occupation of the region (stretching as far back as the 3rd Millennium BCE).

The museum’s most notable archaeological items include cuneiform inscriptions found at Erebuni Fortress and bronze and ceramic cultural items from the Urartu culture.

Tsitsernakaberd Armenian Genocide memorial complex

Armenian Genocide Memorial in Yerevan

‘Armenian Genocide Memorial in Yerevan’ by Jami430, 2017. Available online at

Between 1914 and 1923 the Ottoman government systematically persecuted Armenians living within the Ottoman Empire leading to the death of over 1.5 million citizens of Armenian descent.

The memorial features a 44 metre tall stele, an eternal flame, and an on-site museum. Mourners gather at the memorial every year on April the 24th.

The Cascade

Cascades, Yerevan, Armenia

Photo credit: Benjamin White

The Cascade was designed with the intention of providing a convenient passageway between downtown Yerevan and the Monument neighbourhood (where Victory Park and many of the embassies are clustered).

The Cascade was a grand plan of the Soviet Union era. Construction began in the 1970s, but in typical Soviet Union fashion the structure was only ever partially completed.

Construction resumed post-independence. The site that you see today was completed in 2009.

Cascades, Yerevan, Armenia

Photo credit: Amrita Ronnachit

The Cascade is a unique feature of Yerevan; the structure itself is full of stunning architectural details, and each level contains exhibition space used for art displays.

The sculpture garden at the base of the stairway includes a Botero (seen above).

The brandy companies of Yerevan

Brandy companies, Yerevan, Armenia

Photo credit: Benjamin White

It may or may not surprise you to hear that Yerevan’s signature product is brandy. There are two major producers in town, both are housed in fantastic 19th Century brick factories. Both offer tours that are popular with tourists.

I must admit that I am not a fan of brandy, but I still very much enjoyed the tour of the historic factory, and I didn’t mind sampling a few of the products they had on offer 🙂

Practical information and how to reach Yerevan:

Yerevan is serviced by Zvartnots International Airport with frequent flights to cities throughout Europe and the Middle East. More transport info here.

Or visit my crappy capital cities page.

More on Armenia:

The Temple of Garni – a much smaller Parthenon, built for the sun god Mihr

Noravank – the New Monastery of 1205 CE with its famous Stairs of Death

Zorats Karer – 223 standing stones in a grassy field. Is it linked to Stonehenge?

Tanahati Monastery – just as good as Noravank or Tatev, minus the crowds 

Selim Caravanserai – built by the Orbelian Dynasty at Vardenyats Pass in 1332 CE.

The geological marvel of Garni Gorge: Symphony of the Stones 

Posts on the Caucasus:


Baku – at 28m below sea level, it’s the world’s deepest capital

Gobustan – stone age petroglyphs that inspired Thor Heyerdahl


Batumi – from Medea and the Golden Fleece to the Las Vegas of the Black Sea

Vardzia – 400 room, 19 level cave city. Watch out for falling rocks!

Ushguli – watchtowers on every house; even Genghis Khan was deterred


Sea Stone Hotel, Vank – a lion head carved into the hillside. Pure genius!

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