Vardzia, Georgia – earthquake-prone cave city. Watch out for falling rocks! 2

Take a hard hat. That would be my tip for your visit to Vardzia, Georgia. The site is crumbling and unstable. Several times while I was there I saw and heard rocks tumbling down the cliff.

Vardzia, Georgia

The cave city of Vardzia, Georgia. Photo credit: Benjamin White

The Georgian government have done what they can to stabilise the site and protect the public; everywhere you look there is concrete, and hard engineering, and geotechnical reinforcement, designed to hold the site together, designed to keep it from falling apart.

Vardzia, Georgia

Vardzia. Photo credit: Amrita Ronnachit

But there are cracks everywhere. Huge cracks, small cracks. It isn’t the Georgian government’s fault – although the unsightliness of the selected engineering structures may be – it’s the geology of the site; it’s too unstable.

More than half the city was destroyed in an earthquake in 1283 CE; and when the next big earthquakes hits they’ll probably lose half of what’s left, and so on, and so on, till all that’s left are a few ugly balustrades.

Vardzia, Georgia

Vardzia. Photo credit: Benjamin White

People have been living in the cliff face at Vardzia since the Bronze Age; they probably migrated here, and took up residence in the caves during the first major flourishing of the cave city of Uplistsikhe (around 400 BCE).

Vardzia, Georgia

The bell tower, Vardzia. Photo credit: Amrita Ronnachit

Vardzia: the city

The real city building didn’t start until the 12th Century CE, during the reign of Georgi III, and Tamar, the regal queen that resided over Georgia during its Golden Era.

The cave city of Vardzia has more than 400 rooms in total; it’s built over 19 levels, and occupies a 500 metre long stretch of the cliff-side above the Kura River.

Vardzia, Georgia

Vardzia. Photo credit: Benjamin White

The city includes churches, chapels, numerous wine cellars, a bell tower, a refectory, and a bakery.

The pièce de résistance is the Church of the Dormition, built in 1180 CE, decorated with colourful medieval Georgian murals, many of which survive to this day.

Vardzia, Georgia

Vardzia. Photo credit: Amrita Ronnachit

Vardzia: the disastrous earthquake

Disaster struck in 1283 CE in the form of a devastating earthquake. Half the city collapsed. The people stuck it out though, and steadfastly began the rebuilding process.

Vardzia, Georgia

Vardzia. Photo credit: Benjamin White

The caves proved a perfect hiding place during the Mongol Invasion of 1290 CE. Genghis’ Hordes never learnt of their existence.

But Vardzia fell to the Persians in 1551, and the city was abandoned in entirety in 1578, following the Ottoman conquest of the Caucasus.

Practical information and how to reach Vardzia:

The cave city of Vardzia is 60 kilometres – a scenic one hour bus ride – from Akhaltsikhe. Buses are infrequent, so check the timetable ahead of schedule. More transport info here.

And watch out for falling rocks!

Vardzia-Khertvisi is on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage status. Read more here.

More on Georgia:

Tbilisi – sulphurous springs, Persian fortress, gold without parallel

Uplistsikhe – pagan temples in cave city; destroyed by Mongols

Ushguli – watchtowers on every house; even Genghis Khan was deterred

Batumi – from Medea and Golden Fleece to Las Vegas of the Black Sea

Gori – birthplace of Stalin, bombed in the Russia/Georgia war of 2008

Posts on the Caucasus:


Selim Caravanserai – built by the Orbelian Dynasty at Vardenyats Pass in 1332 CE.

The geological marvel of Symphony of the Stones 

Tanahati Monastery – as good as Noravank or Tatev without the crowds

Zorats Karer – 223 standing stones in a grassy field. Is it linked to Stonehenge?


Sea Stone Hotel, Vank – a lion head carved into the hillside. Pure genius!


Gobustan, Azerbaijan – stone age petroglyphs that inspired Thor Heyerdahl

Baku, Azerbaijan – world’s deepest capital city

My favourite rock-cut architecture:

Kailasa Temple, Ellora Caves, India – largest monolithic building in the world

Petra, Jordan – Al Siq: narrow, magical chasm leading to Al Khazneh

Petra, Jordan – Ad Deir: the monastery?

The Salt Cathedral of Zipaquirá, Colombia

Naqsh-e Rustam, Iran – unearthly cliff tombs of the Achaemenid emperors

Lycian tombs, Fethiye, Turkey

The Moai Quarry, Easter Island, Chile – 397 moai, a volcano, a mystery, a cataclysm

Or visit my rock-cut architecture page.

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2 thoughts on “Vardzia, Georgia – earthquake-prone cave city. Watch out for falling rocks!

  • Karen White

    It looks like another amazing site. It seems to be a very big cave city, lots of hard work digging into that mountain. What a shame it is slowly disintegrating. I’m glad you didn’t get hit on the head by a rock!!