Mostar, Bosnia & Herzegovina – bullet holes, sniper tower, Ottoman bridge 2

Mostar. The word reminds me of another: mortar.

Which is fitting, as Mostar was subject to frequent mortar attack in the Bosnian War. The city still bears the scars. Pockmarked, bullet-ridden buildings litter the streets; other structures remain almost completely gutted.

Gutted building, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Photo credit: Benjamin White

Restoration is happening. Slowly.

But till it is completed: this daily reminder of the brutality of war.

Bullet-pockmarked building, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Photo credit: Benjamin White

Mostar was a battleground in the 1990s; the fighting culminating in the destruction of Mostar’s most prized possession: the sublime Stari Most (the Old Bridge).

Stari Most

Stari Most, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Photo credit: Benjamin White

Mostar takes its name from its bridge. The word Mostar comes from mostari, meaning bridge-keepers, referring to those who guarded the bridge during medieval times.

Back then the River Neretva was crossed via a precarious wooden suspension bridge, which was so shaky and perilous it put the fear of death into every soul who crossed it. The wooden bridge remained in use until Suleiman the Magnificent, the adept, long-serving sultan who commanded the Ottoman Empire at its zenith – a time when the Ottomans ruled 20-30 million people across Europe, Asia, the Middle-east, and Africa – ordered a new stone bridge created in 1557. The bridge took nine years to build.

Kriva Cuprija, Mostar

Kriva Cuprija, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Kriva Cuprija (the Sloping Bridge). Photo credit: Benjamin White.

A petite version of the Stari Most – purported to be a test run for the major project – named Kriva Cuprija (meaning: the Sloping Bridge) was erected over a nearby stream in 1558. Kriva Cuprija was completed eight years earlier than Stari Most, and is still standing today.

Changing empires

Gimnazija Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Gimnazija Mostar. Photo credit: Benjamin White

In 1878 the Congress of Berlin, in which the most powerful empires of the age came together to decide the fate of the Balkan states following the termination of the Russo-Turkish War, transferred administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina from the moribund Ottoman Empire to the upstart Austro-Hungarian Empire – bringing to an end the Ottoman’s 415 year reign over Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The Austro-Hungarians left their mark in Mostar with a suite of Moorish revivalist municipal buildings, such as the Gimnazija Mostar, a secondary school (seen on the far right in the picture above). The Austro-Hungarians went for Moorish revivalist architecture as they sought to introduce a new national identity for Bosnia and Herzegovina, one that carefully omitted any trace of their Slavic and Ottoman heritage.

View of the River Nerevta, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Photo credit: Benjamin White

In 1918, at the demise of WWI, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs, which quickly became the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (note the change in the order of names), and then the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, and finally the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia in 1946.

In 1992 Bosnia and Herzegovina declared its independence From Yugoslavia, which led to the Serb-dominated Yugoslav People’s Army laying siege to Mostar. And thus the fighting began.

The Sniper Tower, Mostar

Former bank used as a sniper tower during the war, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Former bank used as a sniper tower during the war. Photo credit: Benjamin White

The siege of Mostar forced the Ljubljanska Banka (Ljubljana Bank) tower in central Mostar to close. But its advantageous height meant it wasn’t left empty for long. Various hostile forces inserted snipers in its uppermost levels. Pot-shots were taken at anyone foolish enough to show themselves on the streets.

Bullet-pockmarked building, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Photo credit: Benjamin White

The war began with the Yugoslav People’s Army fighting the allied forces of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Croatian Defence Council. But over the years political tensions shifted one way, then another, and then doubled-back on themselves. Former allies became mortal enemies. The Croats and Bosniaks were at war.

Mostar at sunset, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Photo credit: Benjamin White

On the 9th of November 1993, a Croat tank fired shell after shell after shell into the Stari Most. The bridge, which had spanned the River Neretva for 427 years, and was considered the finest architectural piece left behind by the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, took sixty shells into the sternum before sinking to its knees, toppling forward, and falling into the fast-flowing water below.

The Croat-Bosniak conflict wrapped up in March 1994; the Bosnian War (the war between Bosnia/Herzegovina and Yugoslavia) concluded in 1995. Mostar buried two thousand of its citizens along the way.

A fresh beginning for Mostar

Diver jumping from the top of Stari Most, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Diver jumping from the top of Stari Most. Photo credit: Benjamin White

In 2004, a three-year reconstruction project – a concerted effort between UNESCO, the World Bank, the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, and the Bosnian government – came to an end. An exact replica of the Stari Most was revealed. The Old Bridge was reborn.

Stari Most is now a popular tourist attraction, and once again the symbol of the region.

Read more on the Old Bridge Area of the Old City of Mostar in the UNESCO World Heritage listing. More transport info here.

More on Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Sarajevo – Franz Ferdinand and the Jerusalem of Europe

My favourite bridges:

Si-o-se-pol and the Safavid Bridges of Esfahan, Iran

U Bein’s Bridge, Myanmar – 1000 teakwood posts and a recycled royal palace

Kintai Bridge, Iwakuni, Japan – 17th Century timber bridge, slippery in the rain

Sydney Harbour Bridge – Australia’s Iron Lung

More on the Balkans:


Berat – town of 1000 windows = no window tax!

Bosnia and Herzegovina:

Sarajevo – Franz Ferdinand, and the Jerusalem of Europe

Mostar – bullet holes, a sniper tower, a prized Ottoman bridge

Dubrovnik is King’s Landing from Game of Thrones


Pristina – capital of the newborn country complete with Bill Clinton statue

Republic of Macedonia:

Ohrid – an old, deep lake, where Cyrillic was invented?

Skopje – controversial statues, and ownership of Alex the Great?


Kotor – Byzantine walled city? yes! Adriatic fjord? hmm… not exactly

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2 thoughts on “Mostar, Bosnia & Herzegovina – bullet holes, sniper tower, Ottoman bridge

  • Karen White

    How wonderful that the bridge has been rebuilt. It must have been terrible seeing all the bullet and shell holes in the buildings. How do the local people keep going in these war torn areas. Thank goodness the war ended and all is well there now. Great story as usual.